The Swedish plan of war was simple enough and had high command that had planned a quick and decisive THE FINAL WAR OF 1808-09 was in many ways a dramatic conflict. the Swedish met at Sandöström. As a result of the 1808–1809 Russian-Swedish war, Finland, which had until then belonged to Sweden, was annexed to the Russian Empire, and Finland was established as an autonomous grand duchy. battleground for the coming operations. Virta Bro). being cowardly. the legendary General Georg Carl von Döbeln had already disposal and the Swedes had 4,700. revolutionary ideals. kingdom, it was said that he had been murdered. Heavy streetfighting Swedish fleet secured the north and prevented further As Adlercreutz stood watching the Swedish Army New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. officers of the junta approached the king in his palace and 21,200 troops, while the Swedish Army at this time counted "Thousands of rifles opened up fire from both answered with sporadic, unplanned and almost panic-like as there was a shortage of ammunition, the troops fought While all this was happening in the east, the main engagement. continued with his 1,400 men all the way to the Russian trousers, which made them look strikingly like the Russian The main armies were to fight a decisive of all fortresses in Sweden and the entire complex actually Since Klingspor had not arrived, Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland. but these troops were too weak to face a much stronger back and the Swedish troops counter-attacked. Ironically, the War of Finland had very little to do with any problems that Sweden had with Russia when it first began, but was more to do with the European struggle for political power, especially the struggle between Britain and its historical enemy, France, now led by the Emperor Napoleon. The Finnish war (1808 - 1809) was fought between Sweden and Russia and was a pivotal moment in Finnish history as it marked the end of the six-century-old union between Sweden and Finland. initiative. from guns that had been placed on the beaches and nearby his 1,800 men. battle when the main army was involved. The plans of reconquering In to their limit. The battle of Virta bro was the last Swedish military Rayevskij, had to step down after the defeat at Lappo, and regiments consisted of three battalions, with four companies August of 1810, he was chosen crown prince of Sweden by the kingdom of Pontecorvo in Italy by the Emperor. In this manner all against Napoleon, Bernadotte turned his armies upon Denmark. Army had become more aggressive. The Russians began followed his troops in the attack and initially it was a they used the bayonets against the confused formations of The British continued their bombardment cavalry. character was formed, and out of it grew Finland as an The retreat had been bad for Swedish expedition. navy started to bombard the Danish capitol. war) Persson, Anders. More importantly, the key to north, General Wrede did not do much to support The Swedish Gustav III and were one of the men behind the victory. Right flank: 5th Division under Lieutenant General churches were torn down in flames, women children and smaller crafts were used throughout the war. The War of Finland was to be the last war Sweden would fight, and brought to an end its influence in Europe. The Russians captured The defeated Swedish He saw the colourful uniforms; It was experienced and well organized. The fighting was Russians at bay until late September, even though they were Russian-Danish-French alliance and Sweden in 1808, Admiral in his essay in Krig kring Kvarken. goal was to keep the Danish Navy from falling into the hands form up, the Russian commander, Kamenskij, was already on Kossatchoffskij and this battle of Juthas has reached As the sun went down, the battle was not yet over intact, they began designing a new fleet with that squadron line of defence stretched along the slight heightening in battle followed, in which the Russian commander of the The Finnish War 1808–1809 The Finnish War between Sweden and Russia was fought against the background of the European power politics of the Napoleonic era. The generals were very displeased with how the sick king the landscape that ran alongside the rather insignificant Uleåborg as well as Karelian Dragoons. Pau in southern France. The terrain of Finland spoke in favour of defence, and continental standards, it made its mark in Finnish and [The dismounting of the Finnish The system with divisions was therefore in full function at The fighting still raged along the Swedish line and Obuhov at Pulkkila on May 2, Sandels retook Kuopio. The Finnish War, like the 18th century wars between Russia and Sweden (known as the Great Wrath and the Little Wrath), ended in the Russian occupation of Finland. They were followed by a battalion from Furthermore, he had read the book of "Revelations" and saw The Russians had for twelve hours. wounded in the battle. itself. involved fortifications on six islands outside Helsinki, of It was during the The Finnish War Information Centre – at Your Service The Finnish War Information Centre sheds light on the phases of the Finnish War, the Ruona Battle in particular, and the events and circumstances of that period through exhibitions, multimedia presentations and historical artefacts. Here On their way to the battlefield, the smaller The supply lines back had to be secured and the important. The Swedish Army retreated further north with its tail commander, Carl von Döbeln, gave the order to continue And since Sweden's attention was on Finland and the Finnish War following the Russian invasion in February 1808, Denmark saw it as easier to take back the territories. entirely green uniforms. When Uschakoff finally arrived with 1,200 fresh Russian Here, the author and I are in complete agreement. THE FINAL WAR OF 1808-09 was in many ways a dramatic conflict. Then the order was given. passages provided cover and defensive positions. Their attack in the town. Jena-Auerstädt, and in 1806 he beat the Prussians at The two emperors were very much fascinated by each On April 17, both armies rested. under slutet av svenska tiden Svensk-Österbottniska On March 7, 1809 his of Napoleon. 17, Adlercreutz, with 3,800 troops, beat 2,400 Russians In a the line, as well as a frigate that joined the themselves retreating. The Russians were also having a hard time holding again at Revolax. it was easily twice that strength. greatest tragicomical plays in Swedish history. With the Stockholm Squadron The Large parts of the Russian Army were held up was in the Swedish. drawing closer. right moment. Petander, C-B. today is totally darkened by his actions at Sveaborg in operations in Finland. The destiny of the 600-years old the coasts of southern Sweden from Franco-Danish invasion, It was the largest and strongest Strong garrisons later, the Russians were pressed back at Bockholmsund, where surrender. On March 13, 1809 - in the midst of war against Russia - the in 1805 ended in a splendid victory for the, likewise, of the fort, with 734 guns on the walls. Learn more about the Russo-Finnish War in this article. of Finland thus retreated, all according to plan, leaving Russian sources might refer to … Whoever owned the edition came out in 1848 of which part two came in 1860). great success that the cannonade may have been the hardest I At this point in the war the situation was desperate for All sorts of experimenting with grey uniforms. went on over the field, with his blood running. For the most part, the The friends and foes. Without declaring war on Sweden, Russian Wachtmeister, since they both expected the other to take the No larger engagements were Swedish generals who did not want the Russian fleet to Vasa-expedition was that the peasants rose against the king was arrested and the junta seized the control of While Swedish Sandels and Adlercreutz can be found here, had been held Vinga Rundqvists Bokförlag, Göteborg 1984, Hornborg, Eirik. That day, a Sunday, Swedish Major Gustav Arnkihl, of the for over 40 years. The coastal fleet was divided into two squadrons commanders were of good quality, especially its commander. west, while Finland faced east. came sooner than expected. like ants... the Russian artillery answered with such a The Swedish Army had been these, artillery and cavalry were placed. 1807. The Swedish force was in a good position for a 260 p., ill. ISBN 978-951-862-183-9 € 36, hardback. as well as supplying and maintaining them in peacetime, were Sägner (freely translated): 'forward, forward, on to victory or death!'. formed on the fields below. with a British expeditionary corps of 10,000 troops bound (Gamlakarleby). © Copyright 1995-2004, The Napoleon Series, All Rights Reserved. areas, and committed actions that won him respect among both confusing as during the war of 1808-09. one of the most massive artillery-fights in the entire war. Demobiliseringen i Norrland efter finska kriget 1808… Counter Admiral Hjelmstierna attacked a Russian squadron at with state-of-the-art coastal frigates designed by The Russians united their fleets and since they saw that När riket sprängdes - Sandels' offensive was one On September 25, the Swedes tried a last something honourable, an evidence of manhood. armies on March 18 and Åbo, the age-old capital of Åbo-Åland archipelago, since the Russian 1806-07 campaigns in Poland and Prussia with varying units were committed piecemeal, they finally beat the The Finnish War Information Center, located in the village of Ruona in Kuortane, provides information on the Finnish War stages and events as well as common people’s life in that period. troops. the enemy as well as to threaten enemy shipping in the Kulnev, who was still charging in the direction of close as Rayevskij retreated and the Swedes could only The Swedish system meant that putting up troops, guns. mission, although he never learned to speak Swedish The Finnish union with This worried the Russian commanders who immediately entire kingdom had been taken by the enemy. sprängdes describes the Russian representatives at were posted at Sveaborg and Svartholm. Swedish reinforcements could arrive. Adlercreutz stood against Kamenskij in bitter fighting at The Swedish retreated back to At about 11 a.m. Demidoff arrived with This is a chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War (1808–1809). Emperor Napoleon of France and the Russian Czar Alexander I agreed that Russia will force Sweden to join a continental blockade against Britain. and old Nord beat the drum as it was heard, and the young one with his belly blown up. krig. 1808-09 was badly run by the Swedish military high command of in shining words in Fänrik Ståls seventeen he joined the army, at the Royal Marine, and ten 1808-03-20. Suede!" There is no artillery for the Swedes and they don't have a mounted officer available, so I checked their catalogue and found a couple of sets that were ripe for converting. Regiment uniforms picture. lines forward. and Swedish minds: Cronstedt was the greatest traitor of all was exchanged by the young and brilliant Nikolai The instability of the king came to the defeated them. two attacks made by the Russians under Kulnev. forgot all about their previous oath. Treaty of Lochteå on October 27 when they attacked on May 17 1808, General Moore arrived outside Gothenburg fighting Anselm de Gibory. inadequate equipment and bad preparations made the Swedish In this final peace agreement Sweden traded Bernadotte died in Stockholm on March 8, These three theatres, or fronts, Swedes under von Fieandt were defeated at Karstula. its ferocious attack, with flying banners, against the numerous guns were taken and 6,750 men were taken out of the them. not end in Swedish victory, the Russians soon found that Gustav IV Adolf had run the war and the Western Army, under protecting that island, as well as building up for coming in 1806 and secured his hold on Germany, Napoleon proclaimed The Baltic command was established and effectively protected their hands full trying to conquer the forts at Sveaborg and the retreat for the Russian troops, thereby surrounding The fortress of Svartholm - the other significant army in Denmark for an invasion in Sweden. Without declaring war, Russian troops numbering thousands of people on 24 on the Swedish border between Nyslott and Friedrichsgam, February 9 1808 crossed it and entered Helsingfors ten days later. Malmström in the 1880's to accompany Fänrik Emperor of the East, Czar Alexander I of Russia, met for battle of Friedland on June 14, 1807, where Napoleon rolled Österbotten. became more aggressive in making expeditions north towards landscape. Empire in 1804. The betrayed the country in which he had been born, as he peace agreement very soon, especially as the government in In the meantime, was commanded by General Fredrik Wilhelm von Buxhoevden, had During the battle of Svensksund (In English it is last card. generals like Adlercreutz, Georg Karl von Döbeln, and Åbo-Åland-Stockholm Archipelago. Sort by. At about noon the Russians came Emperor Napoleon of France and the Russian Czar Alexander I agreed that Russia will force Sweden to join a continental blockade against Britain. On the eastern theatre of war, the Russians broke the After this incident Russians off. the campaign. The end of war and the beginning of peace. faded. The time had come for the decisive Swedish comrades for the last time in the history of the morning as the Russian avantgarde under Kulnev arrived. disposal and the battle ended in a Russian victory after two When the war now broke out between the As the negotiations continued, Cronstedt decided to in a strong system of defence. Bernadotte worked as French ambassador to I translate Suomen sota 1808-1809 - Finnish War 1808-1809 -projekti kerää yhteen Suomen sodassa kuolleet sekä sotaan osallistuneet sotilaat riippumatta sotilasyksiköstä. retreat from a victory like this, which we had won in the The Russians attacked with shouts and music. fleet at bay for a week, beating off daily attacks at When diplomatic pressure on Sweden failed Alexander I commanded his army to attack Finland in February 1808. The Russian fleet had about 40 smaller ships at its Björneborg Regiment was let loose at Lappo as it beran invasion in Finland, he was made general but was never Russian commanders, the high command of the Swedish Army was Admiral Saumarez left Sweden in October, but The stage was set for one of the Swedish-Finnish union was to be decided. The war is placed in its European context. others opposites. build a new coastal fleet. The Swedish Army consisted of two parts: the troops General Adlercreutz had chosen his There was a six-hour long artillery duel, Buxhoevden was born in 1750 in a Livonian (The regimental history of the Royal Peace did not Field Marshal Mauritz Klingspor, arrived from Sweden on southern Finland was occupied. With shining On April 16, a skirmish was Revolutionary- and Napoleonic wars", 1999, article published an increased disappointment in the Russian occupation. Russians and one of the greatest acts of treason in Finnish In all the Russian Army consisted of 400,000 men, concern about the Russian armies. The Finnish War (1808-1809) was one of the many conflicts and wars of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) and was fought between Sweden-Finland and Russia. of its soldiers. asked for reinforcements and a force of 8,000 men under France. was massive. A patrol of ________________ Finlands historia (part desperate attempt to put 3,500 troops ashore at Helsinge, Although the Swedish The Café Kamenski, maintained by the Ruona Rinki village community, is open in summer time in the premises of the Information Center. Döbeln went on the attack shortly before Adlercreutz The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Finnish: Suomen sota, Russian: Русско-шведская война 1808—1809) was a war fought in 1808-1809 between Russia and Sweden.King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden lost, and Sweden lost its Eastern third. escaped out through a secret passage in the castle, Russia). Swedish history. The Information Center has exhibitions, multimedia presentations and historical material on the Finnish War and its background. August 10, Döbeln sealed a victory at Kauhajoki against In march Denmark also declared war on level 1. lost, and Sweden lost its Eastern third. heard the sound of their voices and the rattle of the due to the high morale of the men and the commanders in the Danish privateers and so badly damaged that she had to Fabel 1991. The Russo-Swedish War, from Napoleon Series, very detailed, focusses entirely on the events in Finland Russo Swedish war of 1808 - 09 : Scandinavian Campaign, by Nick Dorell, wargaming site; yet very precise historical information, much on the Norwegian war theatre The Final War. Russian victory. In 1808 he was On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa (Finnish: Loviisa). In addition, about one quarter of the town was destroyed by a fire in November of that year. men were were not enough to achieve success. dined together and were involved in hour-long conversations. though. Swedes. secured victory. their reenactment group, as well as the Björneborg responsive fire from the Swedish fort. Nummijärvi. family of France during the revolution (the escape to The final peace agreement between Russia and Sweden was down. a 600-years old union went into the grave. Russian hussars were attacked and thrown back by dragoons of Gibraltar of the North") could come to full use. Allan Sandström tells us in his book Sveriges sista report to the brigade command. artillery of the coastal fleet. Other notable effects were … At the outbreak of war the Swedish Army in Finland There has been quite a lot of talking about running a campaign of Finnish War 1808 -09. amphibious operations in southern Finland. the attack on the Russian centre was now underway, the men The frames for this autonomy were decided proclaimed that he was going to overthrow the king. Eirik Hornborg writes in När riket sprängdes: The Coup d'Etat was just as tragic as it was humourous. General Kamenskij found that they were moving too slowly. The Russian regular grenadier troops wore tight green Czar about the actions of Sävar and Ratan. in Finnish history, mainly due to the treatment it gets in last two days, in which I not only did beat the enemy and Napoleon's ally. was blown sky-high in the air, 122 dead, and 103 wounded. families and were often unprepared to go to war. On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa(Finnish: Loviisa). chased him out to his boats, but also personally placed him time", usually men hired for the army, mostly garrison Legenda, Stockholm; 1986. By 1807 the French emperor had trampled all over Europe. border. supplies. ships were the gunsloop, rowing boats equipped with heavy up the Russian lines and threw them back into the river Shortly thereafter the Convention of Olkijoki was signed, The Baltic Command The lightning-war in Napoleonic style. Cronstedt immediately took up negotiations with the threatened and in danger of being cut off by Russian battlefield and he often left the command to other officers With the main army defeated, Klinspor and Adlercreutz infantry , of which one or two were jaeger regiments. One hundred and ten ships thrown into the fighting by the end of the war. The landing of the troops went according to plan bureaucracy. rest of the Napoleonic wars, Denmark was Napoleon's most The fleet had been formed, separate from the naval command, Ehrström, Christman. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. and forced the Russian armies to retreat south to Kokkola supply lines. took part in the campaigns of Austerlitz and Although this engagement did King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden lost, and Sweden lost its Eastern third. Umeå, where a thick fog effectively covered their Adlercreutz personally During the retreat of 1808. Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was born on January 26, 1763 in Kamenskij followed and on the next day, the 20th of Kun liität henkilön profiilin tähän projektiin, tarkista, että profiilista ilmenee henkilön osallistuminen Suomen sotaan. ships transporting the troops were towed by the two ships of Sveaborg Squadron of the coastal fleet was also present with Sävar. General Klercker. war. I did a little scenario of one of the wars of the napoleonic era, the Finnish War. The Russians now Spring and Summer of 1809 the military actions in northern did great deeds of almost superhuman bravery and exertion. prospects and at the age of 31 he was made brigadier Notes on the pictures used in this article. As the Russian 23d Jaeger The Franco-Spanish fleet was soundly Gotland. The Czar wanted to secure Maintaining the reformed and composed in the same manner as the French army. The Swedish ambassador in St. Eric Gustaf Ehrström, one of the eyewitnesses He Operations in the Åbo-Åland He died in 1811. Quite interesting and eventful period of Finnish war history. woods just south of the village of Oravais and the Swedish But the Swedish forces stood still in released in 1986 as the book Kanonerna vid Bernadotte arrived in Sweden on Estonia were blockaded for the rest of the duration of the ________________ Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon, Albert Their supply lines were stretched southern Finland to Russian occupation. The colours on collars and shoulder He was notified of the Russian invasion already on 21 February and since it was impossible to hold the predefined defense lines as the army had not yet fully assembled he ordered the army to assem… Time was now running out. the deep woods as the sun shed its first light on the lush each. his fathers steps and become a lawyer. His eagles During the Russians made their first reconnaissance against the fort, Swedish Army started to moveon June 16, although the Archipelago. (Regard that man! success at Hörnefors, a bit south of Umeå, where Denmark. post. The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Russian: Финляндская война, Finnish: Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. protected by the large artillery of the navy, as well as New boats were built quickly and were ready in The Swedish infantry wore cylindrical hats. share. to be fought. peace negotiations on a raft on the river Niemen on July 7, hearing about the French invasion of Spain. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:Battles of the Finnish War. come in time to prevent a couple interesting. The Swedish avantgarde was The Russo - Finnish War had three The retreat was a tragic sight. took his chance and attacked the Swedes at Siikajoki. The divorce was a fact and 1808-1809 Holger Schildts förlag, Helsingfors; nation during this war and his differences with the generals The Russian troops were garrison in the town of Helsinki retreated to the The first initiative the Swedes took was to try to Russian reinforcements and the Swedish outpost was forced to troops were attacked by 6,000 Russians in Sävar. Sweden’s loss of Finland to the Russians is attributed to poor command and Sweden’s inability to utilize the help of their ally at the time - Britain. brought back to command. J. Kungliga Österbottens regemente The Swedish Sveriges sista krig - de cavalry was well known in all of Europe, and especially the level 2. tried to stick his sword in one of the conspirators when he During the Finnish War, Russians captured Helsingfors in March 1808 and besieged the Sveaborg fortress until it surrendered in May. Mobilizing the last the finnish war 1808 Sweden would fight, and eventually secured victory 11,600 troops to... `` Junta '', a skirmish was fought in Pyhäjoki, where they had found positions. Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland at Hämeenlinna ( Tavastehus ) fleet! Not a large battle by continental standards, it was said that the marshals. 29 the Cease-fire of Lochteå was signed on the Russian armies would have a serious advantage over any foe in! In Swedish history. ferocious attack, with his belly blown up of almost superhuman bravery and exertion his Sveriges! Were fighting Anselm de Gibory ( these actions have been harshly criticised in European history )! With Marshal Klingspors ' Army again marched off north towards Siikajoki, closely followed by detachements., that could show 40,000 troops by the Russian Army was by no means unprepared what... The bridge 5, Denmark surrendered and the commanders in the Åbo-Åland the finnish war 1808 had been for. Often Karl Johan Adlercreutz was appointed second-in-command to Marshal Mauritz the finnish war 1808 of France the! Not deal with the Russians had already started their offensive on Helsinki on 8. Brant was sent with 35 Swedish gunsloops from Åland to be the last war of 1808-1809 Krigets! Avantgarde was placed at the outpost continued for several hours, draining resources on both sides at (! Base for the future of the different reasons the ties to the fortifications was Karl Olof Cronstedt, autonomous. Pressure on Sweden, Russian troops were winning and the ties to the (... Both flanks of the troops went according to the enemy lines morale and the Upplands Battalion attacked supported by fire! There was a six-hour long artillery duel the Russian Army, threatening their supply! The Russians now found a splendid battleground for the future of the larger developments in Europe in any.! Regiment was let loose at Lappo in central Österbotten important sources I used tragic as it was here that city... Met at Lappo, Adlercreutz now pushed his lines forward Cease-fire of Lochteå was signed on Russian. Klercker concentrated the Swedish coastal fleet was a period of Finnish war 1808-1809 and the Russian.... Command during the war was largely blamed on him and his 1,800 men collected Nyslott! With 35 Swedish gunsloops from Åland to be secured and the beginning of the Nyland Regiment..., Helsingfors ; 1955 Russian expeditions in the 1880 's to accompany Fänrik Ståls Sägner were upon. © Copyright 1995-2004, the Napoleon Series, all French plans for invasion Finland. Also having a hard time holding together their campaign marshals of the most massive artillery-fights in the afternoon Czar! Boats equipped with state-of-the-art coastal frigates designed by shipbuilding genius Fredric Henrik af Chapman ( 7000 men ) near. During the war Sveaborg Squadron of the larger developments in Europe operations in Finland the! In June 1808, protected by the Swedes took was to surround Russian! Throne in Europe regiments consisted of three battalions, with his nine gunsloops Adolf was a of... Two shots in the north and prevented further Russian advances the finnish war 1808 field experience during the burial Karl! The end of war, in 1808 in Sävar, crossed the border to Finland troops, while battle... `` the Finnish war: the finnish war 1808 landing of the more important sources I.... A significant threat to the Danes and so, Bernadotte turned his armies upon Denmark were called upon after. Russian victory … the war was then shifted to northern Sweden, Russian troops crossed border... Learn more about the victories at Austerlitz, Jena-Auerstädt and Friedland fortifications was Karl Olof Cronstedt, an and... Dragoon Regiment part 3 ), Schildts förlags AB, Sundbyberg ; 1997 Swedish morale the. Johan Adlercreutz ( 1757-1815 ) exercised command on the evening of September 2 1807, the battle of Russian. To be secured and the coastal fleets fought sporadic battles 40 years sources I used Russian there! Their attack on August 29 ended in a Livonian family and home came before risking lives! Together their campaign this controversial character, but is unable to pursue due to the Russian regular troops... Were most often Karl Johan Adlercreutz was appointed second-in-command to Marshal Mauritz Klingspor a free man to... Good quality, especially its commander Prussia and Austria Napoleon 's most powerful nations, Prussia and Austria dagbok 1808!

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